HPV immunisation: A review of parent and stakeholder attitudes on school-based programmes
The purpose of this integrative review is to examine the benefits of school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes in improving overall vaccine education and adherence among the recommended age groups.
The review explores qualitative and quantitative research published between 2010 and 2019 on benefits and barriers to HPV school-based vaccination programmes and stakeholder attitudes influencing implementation in school settings.
A literature review was performed from a United States perspective among ten articles revealing five themes; vaccine knowledge deficit, parental and patient hesitancy, lack of provider recommendation, vaccine safety and side effect and association with increasing sexual activity.
HPV-associated cancers and complications are considered a public health issue. However, stakeholder attitudes on school-based HPV vaccination programmes have shown a significant gap in clinical and vaccine knowledge. Moving forward, a multi-level approach through provider training and age-based recommendations among stakeholders is key in overcoming stigmas and barriers to improve vaccination education and uptake rates.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2015) 8 billion dollars are spent annually in the United States on the management of complications for human papillomavirus (HPV) infections; exceeding the health-care and economic burden of any other sexually transmitted infection (STI) and leading to the importance of early HPV vaccination for both males and females. The CDC and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommend routine HPV vaccination for 9–26-year-olds to reduce HPV-associated cancers, preferably between the ages of 11 and 12 years (American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists [ACOG], 2017). Despite the clinical significance of routine vaccination, vaccination rates in adolescents in the United States are suboptimal.
HPV vaccination can help reduce the health-care burden by decreasing the incidence of cervical cancer, anogenital cancers, oropharyngeal cancers and genital warts. ACOG (2017) reports that only 41.9% of females and 28.1% of males in the recommended age groups received all of the recommended doses; proving the clinical significance of implementing an HPV vaccine school-based programme for males and females to prevent HPV-related cancers (CDC, 2015; ACOG, 2017).
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