References

Social Policy, 2nd edn. In: Alcock P, Erskine A, May M. (eds). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd; 2003

Research and Practices in Child Maltreatment Prevention. 2017. https://capitadiscovery.co.uk/bolton-ac/items/192703 (Accessed 18 October 2018)

Arnold C, Fisch R. The Impact of Complex Trauma on Development.London: Jason Aronson; 2011

Bell M. Promoting Children's Rights in Social Work and Social Care.London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 2011

Critical Perspectives on Safeguarding Children. In: Broadhurst K, Grover C, Jamieson J. (eds). Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009

Children's Society. What is County Lines?. 2018. https://www.childrenssociety.org.uk/what-is-county-lines (Accessed 2 January 2019)

Clayton E, Jones C, Brown J, Taylor J. The Aetiology of Child Sexual Abuse: A Critical Review of the Empirical Evidence. Child Abuse Review. 2018; 27:(3)181-197

Connolly M, Crichton-Hill Y, Ward T. Culture and Child Protection.London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 2006

Corby B. Child Abuse, Towards a Knowledge Base, 3rd edn. Berkshire: Open University Press; 2006

Criminal Justice Joint Inspection. Examining Multi-Agency Responses to Children and Young People who Sexually Offend. 2013. https://www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/prisons/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2014/04/Children_and_Young_People_who_Sexually_Offend_Thematic_Report_310113_Final.pdf (Accessed 5 January 2019)

Achieving Best Evidence in Child Sexual Abuse Cases—A Joint Inspection. 2014;

Crown Prosecution Service. Human Trafficking, Smuggling and Slavery. 2018. https://www.cps.gov.uk/legal-guidance/human-trafficking-smuggling-and-slavery (Accessed 22 December 2018)

Social Work with Children and Families. 2012. Palgrave McMillan, Hampshire Department for Education and Skills. The Children Act 1989. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1989/41 (Accessed 5 December 2018)

Department for Education and Skills. The Children Act 2004. 2004. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2004/31/pdfs/ukpga_20040031_en.pdf (Accessed 5 December 2018)

The Munro Review of Child Protection: Final Report.London: Stationary Office Limited; 2011

Department for Education. Working Together to Safeguard Children. A Guide to Inter-Agency Working to Safeguard and Promote the Welfare of Children. 2013. https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130403204422/ (Accessed 22 October 2018)

Department for Education. Working together to safeguard children. A Guide to Inter-Agency Working to Safeguard and Promote the Welfare of Children. 2015. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/592101/Working_Together_to_Safeguard_Children_20170213.pdf (Accessed 22 October 2018)

Department for Education. Child Sexual Exploitation Definition and a Guide for Practitioners, Local Leaders and Decision Makers Working to Protect Children from Child Sexual Exploitation. 2017a. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/591903/CSE_Guidance_Core_Document_13.02.2017.pdf (Accessed 8 December 2018)

Department for Education. Children and Social Work Act. 2017b. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2017/16/pdfs/ukpga_20170016_en.pdf (Accessed 12 December 2018)

A Guide to Interagency Working to Safeguard and Promote the Welfare of Children. 2018a. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/729914/Working_Together_to_Safeguard_Children-2018.pdf (Accessed 22 December 2018)

Department for Education. Information Sharing. Advice for Practitioners Providing Safeguarding Services to Children, Young People, Parents and Carers. 2018b. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/721581/Information_sharing_advice_practitioners_safeguarding_services.pdf (Accessed 22 December 2018)

Department of Health. Keeping Children Safe: The Governments Response to Victoria Climbié Inquiry Report and Joint Chief Inspectors Report Safeguarding Children. 2013. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/272066/5861.pdf (Accessed 22 October 2018)

The Wiley Handbook of What Works in Child Maltreatment: An Evidence-Based Approach to Assessment and Intervention in Child Protection. In: Dixon L, Perkins D, Hamilton-Giachritis C, Craig L. (eds). : John Wiley and Sons Ltd; 2017

Essex Doyle C. Working with Abused Children, 4th edn. Hampshire: Palgrave McMillan; 2012

Child Sexual Abuse — Initial Suspicion and Legal Outcome. 2018. https://media-proquest-com.ezproxy.bolton.ac.uk/media/hms/PFT/1/ (Accessed 25 October 2018)

Every Child Protected Against Trafficking. What is Child Trafficking?. 2018. https://www.ecpat.org.uk/faqs/what-is-child-trafficking (Accessed 22 December 2018)

Evans C. Ethical Implications of Child Welfare Policies in England and Wales on Child Participation Rights. Ethics and Social Welfare. 2009; 3:(1)95-101

Faugno D, Speek P, Spencer M, Giardino A. Sexual Assault. Quick Reference, 2nd edn. USA: STM Learning Inc.; 2016

Firmin C. Contextualizing Case Reviews: A Methodology for Developing Systemic Safeguarding Practices. 2018; 23:45-52

Giroux M, Chong K, Cobum P, Connely D. Differences in Child Sexual Abuse Cases Involving Child Versus Adolescent Complainants. Child Abuse and Neglect. 2018; 79:224-233

Child Sexual Abuse. In: Goodyear-Brown P. (ed). USA: John Wiley and Sons Inc; 2012

Gunter M, Bruns G. Psychoanalytic Social Work. Practice, Foundations and Methods.London: Karmac Books Ltd; 2013

Hallett S. ‘An Uncomfortable Comfortableness’: ‘Care’, Child Protection and Child Sexual Exploitation. British Journal of Social Work. 2015; 46:2137-2152

Hallett S. Making Sense of Child Sexual Exploitation. Exchange, Abuse and Young People.Bristol: Policy Press; 2017

Haringey Local Safeguarding Children Board. Serious Case Review: Baby Peter. Executive Summary. 2009. http://www.haringeylscb.org/sites/haringeylscb/files/executive_summary_peter_final.pdf (Accessed 23 December 2018)

Hood R, Gillespie J, Jonathon D. A Conceptual Review of Interprofessional Expertise in Child Safeguarding. J Interprof Care. 2016; 30:(4)493-8 https://doi.org/10.3109/13561820.2016.1173656

Information Commissioners Office. Guide to the General Data Protection Regulations. 2018. https://ico.org.uk/for-organisations/guide-to-data-protection/guide-to-the-general-data-protection-regulation-gdpr/ (Accessed 5 January 2019)

Kirton D. Child Social Work.London: Sage Publishing Ltd; 2009

Kwhali J, Martin L, Brady G, Brown S. Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: Knowledge, Confidence and Training within a Contemporary UK Social Work Practice and Policy Context. British Journal of Social Work. 2016; 46:2208-2226

Laird S, Morris K, Archard P, Clawson R. Changing practice: The Possibilities and Limits for Reshaping Social Work Practice. Qualitative Social Work. 2018; 17:(4)577-593

Lawrence A. Principles of Child Protection. Management and Practice.Berkshire: Open University Press; 2004

Lindon J, Webb J. Linking Theory and Practice. Safeguarding and Child Protection, 5th edn. London: Hodder Education;

Lundy L, McEvoy L. Children's Rights and Research Processes: Assisting Children to (in)formed Views. Childhood. 2012; 19:(1)129-144

McCafferty P. Implementing Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in Child Protection Decision-Making: A Critical Analysis of the Challenges and Opportunities for Social Work. Child Care in Practice. 2017; 23:(4)327-341

Melkman E, Hershkowitz I, Zur R. Credibility Assessment in Child Sexual Abuse Investigations: A Descriptive Analysis. Child Abuse and Neglect. 2017; 67:76-85

Melrose M, Pearce J. Critical Perspectives on Child Sexual Exploitation and Related Trafficking.(ed). Hampshire: Palgrave McMillan; 2013

Milner J, Myers S, O'Bryne P. Assessment in Social Work, 4th edn. London: Palgrave; 2015

Morais H, Alexander A, Fix R, Burkhart B. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Adolescents Adjudicated for Sexual Offenses: Mental Health Consequences and Sexual Offending Behaviours. Sexual Abuse. 2018; 30:(1)23-42

Morris K, Mason W, Bywaters P, Featherstone B, Daniel B, Brady G, Hooper J, Mirza N, Scourfield J, Webb C. Social work, poverty, and child welfare interventions. Child and Family Social Work. 2018; 23:(3)364-372

Munro E. Child Protection.London1: Sage Publications Ltd; 2007

The Munro Review of Child Protection: Final Report A child-centred system. 2011. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/175391/Munro-Review.pdf (Accessed 20 December 2018)

Office for The High Commissioner, Human Rights. Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. 2018. https://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/ProtocolTraffickingInPersons.aspx (Accessed 2 January 2019)

Reis R, Hanson R, Sergent J. The Treatment of Child Abuse. Common Ground for Mental Health, Medical, and Legal Practitioners, 2nd edn. USA2014

Rowgowski S. Critical Social Work in Child Protection/Safeguarding: Challenges and (Fewer) Opportunities. Critical and Radical Social Work. 2014; 2:(1)43-58

Salter M. Child Sexual Abuse: Ethics and Evidence. Child Abuse Review. 2018; 27:165-170

Child Sexual Abuse. In: Smith M. (ed). Hauppage: Nova Science Publishers, Inc; 2008

Smith PK, Cowie H, Blades M. Understanding Children's Development.Oxford: Blackwell Publishing; 2003

Smith C, Allardyce S, Hackett S, Bradbury-Jones C, Lazenbatt A, Taylor J. Practice and Policy in the UK with Children and Young People who Display Harmful Sexual Behaviours: An Analysis and Critical Review. Journal of Sexual Aggression. 2014; 20:(3)267-280

Teicher M, Samson J. Annual Research Review: Enduring Neurobiological Effects of Childhood Abuse dnd Neglect. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2016; 57:(3)241-266

Tener D. The Secret of Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse: Who Keeps It and How?. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse. 2018; 27:(1)1-21

The Lord Laming. The Protection of Children in England: A Progress Report. 2009. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/328117/The_Protection_of_Children_in_England.pdf (Accessed 3 January 2019)

United Nations Palermo Protocol. Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. 2000. https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/protocoltraffickinginpersons.aspx (Accessed 21 December 2018)

van Bijleveld GG, Dedding CWM, Bunders-Aelen JFG. Children's and young people's participation within child welfare and child protection services: a state-of-the-art review. Child Fam Soc Work. 2015; 20:(2)129-138

Wilson K, James A. The Child Protection Handbook, 3rd edn. (eds). Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall; 2007

Child sexual abuse: A critical analysis of social workers' role in recognising and responding to it

02 March 2020
18 min read
Volume 1 · Issue 1

Abstract

The role of social workers in safeguarding and child protection has received much critical attention in recent years, in an evolving political and social arena, where policy and practice has shifted following both public outcry of serious case reviews and subsequent policy and practice changes concerning the profession and how it services the needs of the most vulnerable in society. This article seeks to critically examine the current methodology for identifying suspected child sexual abuse signs and indicators, the evolving spectrum of abuse, including critical evaluation of current perspectives on child sexual exploitation.

The role of social workers in safeguarding and child protection has received much critical attention in recent years, in an evolving political and social context, where policy and practice has shifted following both public outcry of serious case reviews (Munro, 2011) and subsequent policy and practice changes concerning the profession and how it services the needs of the most vulnerable in society (Corby, 2006; Department for Education [DfE], 2017a). This article seeks to critically examine the current methodology for identifying suspected child sexual abuse (CSA) signs and indicators, the evolving spectrum of abuse, and to evaluate current perspectives on child sexual exploitation (CSE) (DfE, 2017a). Research in this area has shown that a history of abuse increases the risk for individuals of being further exploitated or becoming an exploiter themselves; alongside child trafficking, this is an area of current concern (Davies, 2012; Melrose and Pearce, 2013; Hallett, 2015; 2017). The article will also provide a critical evaluation of the current policy and practice for professionals engaged in child protection social work, eliciting current perspectives from this field (Broadhurst et al, 2009; Melrose and Pearce, 2013), with evidence drawn from serious case reviews and subsequent changes to policy on the back of these.

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting Journal of Child Health and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for children’s health professionals. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to our clinical or professional articles

  • New content and clinical newsletter updates each month